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Engraving machine operation process and method

Before learning, let’s first understand what the engraving machine can do and what its working principle is. After understanding it, it will be of great help to future learning.

The engraving machine is divided into 2.5 axis, 3 axis, 4 axis and 5 axis according to the movement axis.

Engraving machine

2.5-axis is actually plane engraving. When processing some plane drawings, many customers who have just contacted think that the engraving machine can only do this. In fact, this is wrong. The most important thing is not only the machine itself but also the designer and programmer. Don’t think that looking at things is simple and thinking that it’s also easy to do. You can’t do many things without a little time and experience.

3-axis engraving can actually engrave curved surfaces perpendicular to the Z-axis. For example, the bottom is inclined, semicircular and other graphics. Of course, there is also a fake four-axis machine on the market, which looks the same as a four-axis machine, and can also engrave cylinders. Shaped three-dimensional diagrams, such as Buddha statues, pen-holder reliefs, etc., this type of machine actually pulls out a shaft and changes it to the rotating shaft after aligning the origin of the workpiece, which is different from the real four-axis machine, which is It can rotate the angle, but the fake four-axis machine cannot.

Four-axis machines have one more rotation axis, A-axis or B-axis than ordinary three-axis machines. This can be rotated at any angle, and there are more things to do.

The popular point of the machine is that instead of manual products, the products can be completed in batches and the quality can be guaranteed. You only need to complete the loading and unloading. The others are realized manually through software programming. To complete a product, you need to provide accurate drawing dimensions. The quality of the product is ensured by the programmer according to the technical requirements of the drawing to choose what kind of tool and the depth of the knife, and then the operator will complete the clamping and production of the product. Every step needs to be carefully checked for error, otherwise it will be done. Things are not good either. This is a technical job that requires a rigorous person to complete.

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How to use CNC engraving machine

The whole process of carving is:
The tool path soft lead-in diagram is drawn in the piece,
Then edit the tool path——-import the control system———set the parameters———-carve
Therefore, the whole process requires a tool path software and a control software (Weihong, MACH3)

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The basic operation process of CNC engraving machine

  1. First arrange the layout, including setting the text height, size, kerning, du line spacing and other parameters. It is best to copy the same content in batches.
  2. Then set the path of the dao knife (2D, 3D, cutting). When selecting the knife, choose the appropriate tool according to the font size and line thickness. After the path is completed, check whether the word is not moved. Some The words prove that the tool setting is too large or the text should be revised. Characters of different depths have to follow paths of different depths. Generally, the carving is a 2D flat-bottomed sharp knife, and the cutting is a straight knife.
  3. Store the engraving path. The content of different depths is stored in different files. For example, there are both engraving and cutting in a layout. Because the engraving depth or the selected tool is different, it must be saved as two path files. After saving the engraving path, you must delete the engraving path and save the path as the cutting path (note that the height of the knife here should be 3mm after the first installation of Wentai).
  4. For example, to engrave a two-color board, first move the designed content to the lower left corner of the layout (the lower left corner of Wentai engraving is the working origin), select the content to be engraved and design the tool path 2D (engraving depth is 0.1, and the tool library is flat. Sharp knife (generally W1 is 3.15, the angle is 15 degrees, W2 is the width of the tool tip). The engraving method is horizontal bottom washing, and the secondary processing method is trimming. The tool library selection is the same as the horizontal bottom washing, and the trimming is clockwise Turn, keep the sharp corners, and confirm. After selecting the frame, the 2D engraving method is hooked, and the secondary processing method is removed. The engraving depth is 1.3. The tool selection and engraving are the same knife, which is the edge trimming path. After confirming, save the engraving Click on the path to find a file name. Note that .nc should not be removed. The height of the knife is generally 3 mm.
  5. Cutting the Fulong board: first mirror the arranged text and move it to the lower left corner of the layout, select the 2D engraving depth as 0, the engraving method is crocheting without secondary processing, and the tool magazine selects a straight knife (W1 is 3.175, The height H1 exceeds the material thickness), turn counterclockwise when hooking, keep the sharp corners, save the engraving path after confirmation, click to find a file name, pay attention not to remove .nc, the height of the knife is generally the thickness of the material + 5 mm.
  6. Open the motion management system, right-click automatically, select Open and load to open the path to be engraved saved in Wentai, replace the selected tool, and move the engraving head to the material to be engraved in manual mode to set the origin (in Click on the working coordinates X, Y, Z). When cutting, generally first move the tool to the front of the material. After the Z axis and the table have just touched, set the Z axis to 0, then lift the Z axis to move the tool to the lower left of the material Set X and Y at 0 for the angle.
    Assuming that there are both engraving and cutting on the same layout, the engraving tool needs to be replaced when the engraving is completed. After the engraving is completed, remove the engraving tool. To replace the cutting tool, just reset the Z axis to the origin. The X and Y coordinates must not be changed, otherwise the cutting and engraving and typesetting The layout does not match. (Pay attention to slow down the feed speed when cutting, adjust the following spindle speed for different materials).
  7. Lift the main shaft and move the gantry to a suitable position, and the processing is completed.
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Operation process of engraving machine

  1. Typesetting according to customer requirements and design requirements. After calculating the path correctly, save the paths of different tools and save them in different files.
    2, After checking the path is correct, open the path file in the engraving machine control system (preview available).
  2. Fix the material and define the origin of the work. Turn on the spindle motor and adjust the number of revolutions correctly.
  3. Turn on the power and operate the machine.

Boot up

  1. Turn on the power switch, the power indicator light is on, the machine first performs reset and self-check operation, X, Y, Z, axis return to zero, and then each run to the initial standby position (the initial origin of the machine).
  2. Use the handheld controller to adjust the X, Y, and Z axes respectively, and align them with the starting point (processing origin) of the engraving work. Properly select the rotation speed of the spindle and the feed speed to make the engraving machine in a working waiting state.


  1. Edit the file to be engraved.
  2. Open the transfer file and transfer the file to the engraving machine to automatically complete the engraving work of the file.
    End When the engraving file ends, the engraving machine will automatically lift the knife and run to the top of the work starting point
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Precautions for four-axis CNC machining operations

1) Try to load the clamping material first and then the clamping tool to prevent your hands from touching the tool when loading the clamping material. If the tool has been installed, the workbench should first be moved outside when loading the clamping material to ensure that it will not interfere with the tool when loading the clamping material to avoid injury or break the tool.
2) When disassembling the tool, you must first observe whether the spindle stops rotating.
3) For four-axis CNC machining, do not forcefully hold or pinch the cutting edge of the cutting tool when unloading the knife to avoid scratches.
4) After use, the wrench should be placed in the tool storage area, not on the Y-axis shield or beam.
5) During processing, the operator is not allowed to observe the cutting position at close range to prevent chips from falling into the eyes.
6) Check the position of the oil nozzle before turning on the oil pump switch before the start of four-axis CNC machining to avoid spraying to other positions during oil flushing.
7) When performing pause observation in the gap of 4-axis CNC machining, be sure to move the worktable away from the cutting position.

8)Inspection After the processing is completed and before disassembling the workpiece, we must first carry out the preliminary inspection of the necessary size or appearance, and the workpiece can be disassembled after the inspection is qualified, so as to avoid the positioning problem of the secondary processing and the scrapping of the workpiece after the disassembly. The disassembled workpieces need to be further tested for some key dimensional data to finally meet the processing requirements.

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What are the processes for four-axis CNC machining?

The composition of the entire process includes product analysis-graphic design-process planning-path generation-path simulation-path output-processing-inspection. In this session, a specific case is completed by way of demonstration, focusing on understanding the connection of each link. The material processed in the case is two-color plate or plexiglass.

  1. Product analysis of four-axis CNC machining
    Certain compositional information and some specific processing requirements should be obtained through product analysis.
  2. Graphic design for four-axis CNC machining
    Graphic design should first be based on a detailed analysis of the product. For example, for stamp processing, we must determine the font, text size, stamp type, etc. through analysis of processing requirements.
  3. Process planning for four-axis CNC machining
    Through the analysis of the appearance and processing requirements of the workpiece product in the early stage, each processing step is reasonably established from the overall processing.
  4. Path generation
    The process of path generation is actually that we realize the process planning through software, and at the same time optimize the tool path to a certain extent through parameter settings.
  5. Path simulation
    After the path is generated, we generally do not have an intuitive feeling about its final performance on the machine tool. Here we can check the possible problems through path simulation, thereby reducing the scrap rate of actual processing. The general inspection focuses on the appearance of the workpiece, whether it is over-cut or under-cut, and then whether the process planning of the path is reasonable.
  6. Path output
    The path output of four-axis CNC machining is a necessary step for software design and programming to be realized on the machine tool. The path output can establish a connection between the two by referring to the middle. If the students have a professional background in CNC, it can also be understood as the post-processing of the tool path.

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Choose the fixture

For a four-axis CNC machining center, choosing a good fixture is too important, because on the machining center, the task of the fixture is not only to clamp the workpiece, but also to determine the zero point of the workpiece programming with the positioning surface in all directions as the reference datum. The parts processed on the machining center are generally more complicated. The parts need to be rough milled and rough bored, as well as fine iron and fine bored in one-piece clamping. A variety of tools are required, which requires the fixture to be able to bear Large cutting force must meet the requirements of positioning accuracy. The automatic tool change (ATC) function of the machining center also stipulates that the bracket, position detection and tool setting components cannot be used in the machining. The high flexibility of the machining center requires that its fixture is more than ordinary The structure of the machine tool is compact and simple, the tightening action is fast and accurate, the auxiliary time is minimized, the operation is convenient, labor-saving, and safe, and sufficient rigidity must be guaranteed, and it must be flexible and changeable.
For the personnel who need to operate the four-axis CNC machining center every day, if you want to use the fixture properly, you must first have a deeper understanding and mastery of the machining characteristics of the machining center, and also pay attention to the following issues:

  1. The accuracy of processed parts:
  2. Batch size:
  3. Manufacturing cycle;
  4. Manufacturing cost.
    According to the four-axis CNC machining center manufacturer’s understanding, according to the characteristics and processing needs of the machining center machine tool, the currently commonly used fixture structure types include special fixtures, modular fixtures; adjustable fixtures and group fixtures. There is also a comprehensive consideration when we choose Various factors, choose the most economical and reasonable fixture form.
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Tool selection of four-axis CNC machining center

Four-axis CNC machining center tools must adapt to the characteristics of high-speed, high-efficiency, and high degree of automation of CNC machine tools. Generally, they should include general-purpose tools, general-purpose connection tool holders and a small number of special tool holders. The tool holder must be connected to the tool and mounted on the power head of the machine tool, so it has gradually been standardized and serialized.
There are many ways to classify CNC tools.
According to the tool structure, it can be divided into:
②Inlaid type, using welding or machine clamp connection, machine clamp type can be divided into non-indexable and indexable two;
③Special types, such as composite cutters, shock-absorbing cutters, etc.
According to the materials used by CNC machining center manufacturers to manufacture folding tools, they can be divided into:
①High-speed steel cutter;
②Cemented carbide tools;
③Diamond tool;
④Tools of other materials, such as cubic boron nitride tools, ceramic tools, etc.
From the cutting process, it can be divided into:
① Turning tools, including outer circle, inner hole, thread, cutting tools, etc.;
②Drilling tools, including drills, reamers, taps, etc.;
③ Boring tool;
④Milling tools, etc. In order to meet the requirements of CNC machine tools for tool durability, stability, easy adjustment, and exchangeability, in recent years, machine-clamped indexable tools have been widely used, and the number has reached 30% to 40% of the entire CNC tools. Metal removal The amount accounts for 80% to 90% of the total.
Compared with the tools used on ordinary machine tools, CNC tools for four-axis CNC machining have many different requirements, mainly as follows:
⑴ Good rigidity (especially for rough machining tools), high precision, low vibration resistance and thermal deformation;
⑵Good interchangeability, convenient for quick tool change;
⑶ High life, stable and reliable cutting performance;
⑷The size of the tool is easy to adjust to reduce the tool change adjustment time;
⑸ Four-axis CNC machining tools should be able to reliably break or roll chips to facilitate the removal of chips;

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The main reason for the imbalance of the tool holder

The main reason for the four-axis CNC machining is the asymmetry of the tool design, the defect in the tool body, and all the adjustments on the tool. A correctly balanced tool can significantly reduce noise and vibration, which leads to increased tool life and better part accuracy consistency.
The centrifugal force of the four-axis CNC machining center magnifies the vibration caused by the imbalance in a relationship proportional to the square of the speed. The increased vibration of the CNC machining center caused by the machining center minimizes the life of bearing bushes, bearings, shafts, spindles and gears.
Before balancing the tool on the CNC machining center, it is necessary to measure the size of the unbalance and the angular position of each selected correction plane. These variables are measured on two general types of balance machines: non-rotating or gravity machines are used to measure unbalance in a single plane, and rotating or centrifuges are used to measure unbalance in a single plane or two planes.
After measuring the size and angle of the unbalance on the correct plane, you can correct it by adding or removing material from the workpiece. For machining centers that are not tools, the most widely used material addition method for drilling and tapping centers is to weld counterweights on the components.
Four-axis CNC machining other methods for slightly unbalanced components include adding solder on the component body or adding weight in the pre-drilled hole. For the tool, when you determine the imbalance that you determine that you must remove the material to get the correct balance, the easiest and most effective method is drilling.
This is a quick adjustment, and the amount of material removal can be precisely controlled. Another option is milling, which is the most effective way to balance thin-walled tools or where shallow cutting is mandatory.

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The problem of scratches in machining center holes

  1. See if you can change the processing reference, it may be that the parameter setting is unreasonable.
  2. On the other hand, the effective way to avoid scratches is to use boring instead of drilling, and the process is wrong.
  3. You must first see the picture to know that if the thickness of the workpiece processed by the four-axis CNC machining center is not very thick, you can use a reamer to twist it.
  4. It is also possible that the water flow rate of your coolant is slow and the water volume is not enough, and the chips cannot be discharged.
  5. Sharpen the angle of the drill bit better, and if your drilling speed is too high, the alloy milling cutter Vc is about 100, and the drill bit processing iron Vc is about 40.
    Question 2: When a four-axis CNC machining numerical control lathe is turned on and an alarm occurs, it reflects that the main motor is overheated, and a contactor in the power distribution cabinet at the back has tripped.
    First of all, you have to check what the contactor does. If you don’t jump, it’s not a contactor.
    Secondly, check whether the corresponding line is grounded. Again, check if there is any problem with the corresponding drive motor
    The above three points should be sufficient to solve such problems as four-axis CNC machining centers.

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How to deal with problems with the power supply?

There are two lights on the power supply of the large four-axis CNC machining center unit, one is the power indicator light, which is green; the other is the power warning light, which is red. The power supply unit mentioned here includes the power input unit and the power control part.
When the power of large CNC machining center cannot be turned on, if the power indicator (green) is off.
The fuses F1 and F2 of the power supply unit are blown. This is caused by high input voltage, or the components of the power supply unit itself have been damaged.
The input voltage of the large four-axis CNC machining center is low. Please check the voltage entering the power supply unit. The allowable value of the voltage is AC 200V+10%, 50HZ±1HZ.
Defective power supply unit, internal damage
The power indicator light is on and the alarm light disappears, but the power cannot be turned on.
At this time, it is because the conditions for power-on (ON) are not met. By the following switch circuit, the conditions for power on are as follows:
There are three power-on conditions for the four-axis CNC machining center: (1) The power ON button is closed. (2) The power OFF button is closed. (3) The external alarm contact is open.

The alarm light of the power supply unit of the large CNC machining center is on
1. Fuse of 24V output voltage
2. 9″ monitor screen uses +24V voltage, check whether +24V is short-circuited with ground.
3. Defective display/manual data input board.

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Clamping and alignment method

The basic methods of clamping and alignment during four-axis CNC machining are as follows:
①Clamp the workpiece on the four-jaw single-action chuck, in order to increase the freedom of the four-axis CNC machined workpiece in the horizontal direction and prevent damage to the outer circle, a narrow copper plate is placed at each chuck jaw .
②Introduced by the four-axis CNC machining manufacturer, put a flat plate on the bed and use the scoring disk to align the eccentric reference center line.  
③Using the cross-hair correction method, move the scribing plate from left to right along the eccentric lines on both sides in parallel, and reverse half a circle, repeatedly correct the position of the workpiece and the height of the scribing needle, so that the eccentric line is aligned with The height of the needle is the same. 
④Tighten the chuck jaws in order in the opposite direction, and ensure that the correct position of the workpiece remains unchanged. If the eccentricity accuracy of the CNC lathe processed by the four-axis CNC is high, the eccentricity of the workpiece can be regarded as the circle runout amount, and the swing difference of the dial indicator can be directly used for correction.