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Face milling and End milling

face milling and end milling

Face milling

“Face milling” is used for machining planes on vertical milling machine, end du milling machine or gantry milling machine. There are cutter teeth on the end face and the circumference, and there are also coarse teeth and fine teeth. Its structure has integral type, insert type and indexable type.

Face milling cutters have a cutting edge on the end face and outer circle perpendicular to the arbor, which are mainly used for milling planes. The cutting edge of the outer circle is the main cutting edge, and the cutting edge of the end face plays the same role as the scraper. Face milling cutters have shorter blades than sleeve end mills.

High-speed steel face milling cutters are generally used to process medium-width flat surfaces. The standard milling cutter diameter range is 80 ~ 250 mm. The cutting efficiency and processing quality of carbide face milling cutters are higher than that of high-speed steel milling cutters, so at present, hard alloy face milling cutters are widely used to process planes

Face milling cutters are mainly used for processing planes, which are characterized by: high production efficiency; good rigidity, can use a larger feed; multiple cutter teeth are involved in cutting at the same time
Sharpening, good working stability; adopting rigid inserting structure, easy to sharpen and replace the cutter teeth, and long tool life.
Face milling cutters are divided into two categories, one is to fix the hard alloy blade to the cutter teeth by brazing, and then install the cutter teeth on the cutter body of the milling cutter. This is called an insert-type face milling cutter; second The class is to directly install the hard alloy blade on the cutter body of the milling cutter, and then fix it with screws, etc. This is called the indexable clamp milling cutter. The face milling cutter has two axial rake angles and a radial rake angle. The direction of the two rake angles is selected according to the material and cutting conditions of the object to be processed, that is, positive +, negative -, or zero.

The tools for processing flat workpieces are mainly face milling cutters, whose cutting edges are covered with circumferences and end faces. Among them, the cutting edge of the end face is an auxiliary cutting edge. The diameter of the face milling cutter is large, so the cutter teeth and the cutter body are usually separated when the cutter is selected, so as to achieve the purpose of long-term use.

Choice of face milling cutter diameter

(1) The surface area is not large. When choosing a tool, pay attention to choose a tool or a milling cutter with a diameter larger than the width of the plane, so that a single plane milling can be achieved. When the width of the plane milling cutter reaches 1.3 to 1.6 times the width of the processing surface, it can effectively ensure the better formation and discharge of chips.

(2) When the area of ​​the processing plane is large, it is necessary to select a milling cutter with an appropriate diameter and mill the plane multiple times. Among them, the diameter of the milling cutter will be limited due to the limitations of the machine tool, the depth and width of the cutting, and the size of the blade and tool;

(3) When the machining plane is small and the workpieces are scattered, an end mill with a small diameter needs to be selected for milling. In order to maximize the processing efficiency, the milling cutter should have a diameter of 2/3 in contact with the workpiece, that is, the diameter of the milling cutter is equal to 1.5 times the width of the milling. In down milling, the reasonable use of the ratio of the tool diameter to the cutting width will ensure that the milling cutter has a very suitable angle when cutting the workpiece. If you are not sure whether the machine tool has enough power to maintain the cutter at such a ratio, you can divide the axial cutting thickness in two or more times to maintain the ratio of the cutter diameter to the cutting width as much as possible.

End milling

“End milling” is used for smaller planes. It is mainly used for processing grooves and stepped surfaces. The cutter teeth are on the circumference and the end surface, and they cannot be fed in the axial direction during work.

End milling is one of the most used milling cutters on CNC machine tools. Both the cylindrical surface and the end surface of the end mill have cutting cutters. They can be cut simultaneously or separately. Mainly used for plane milling, groove milling, step face milling and profiling milling.

End milling can be used as face milling. However, because the main declination angle is 90°, the force of the tool is mainly radial force in addition to the main cutting force, which is easy to cause deflection and deformation of the arbor, and it is also easy to cause vibration, which affects the processing efficiency. Therefore, except for similar to the thin-bottom workpiece Except for special reasons such as small axial force or occasional face milling, which is occasionally necessary to reduce the variety of tool stocks, it is not recommended to use an end mill to machine flat surfaces without steps.

The application range and requirements of high-speed steel end mills are relatively broad, and even if the cutting conditions are slightly improperly selected, there will not be too many problems. Although the carbide end mill has good wear resistance during high-speed cutting, its use range is not as wide as that of high-speed steel end mills, and the cutting conditions must strictly meet the requirements of the tool.

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